Biosynthesis of Cortisol

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Biosynthesis of Cortisol

Biosynthesis of Cortisol

Cortisol (also called stress hormone) is synthesized from cholesterol in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. The synthesis of cortisol in the adrenal gland is stimulated by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland with ACTH; ACTH production is stimulated by CRH, which is released by the hypothalamus. ACTH increases the concentration of cholesterol in the inner mitochondrial membrane, via regulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. It also stimulates the main rate-limiting step in cortisol synthesis, in which cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone and catalyzed by Cytochrome P450SCC.

Biosynthesis of Cortisol

Functions of Cortisol Hormone

Some important functions of cortisol hormone is given below-
1. It helps in the release of milk for breastfeeding.
2. It helps control blood pressure and blood sugar levels.
3. It helps in maintaining fluid balance and blood pressure.
4. It increases blood sugar and boosts energy to handle stressful conditions.
5. It produces anti-inflammatory reactions to keep inflammation down.
6. It plays a very important role in helping the body to respond to stress.
7. It regulates a wide range of processes, including metabolism and the immune response.
8. These hormones play a major role in the contractions of the myometrium and uterine and the relaxation of the pelvic ligaments.
9. It suppresses the immune response and other physiological functions like digestive, reproductive and growth that are not crucial under stress.
10. It is a glucocorticosteroid, which regulates gluconeogenesis, lipolysis and proteolysis.
11. It manages how the body uses carbohydrates, fats and proteins.