Organic Chemistry B.Sc. 1st Semester

Organic Chemistry: Fundamentals, Sterochemistry and Hydrocarbons B.Sc. 1st Semester

Organic Chemistry: Fundamentals, Sterochemistry and Hydrocarbons B.Sc. 1st Semester

Organic Chemistry: Fundamentals, Sterochemistry and Hydrocarbons

Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry

Physical Effects, Electronic Displacements: Inductive Effect, Electromeric Effect, Resonance and Hyperconjugation. Cleavage of Bonds: Homolysis and Heterolysis.

Structure, shape and reactivity of organic molecules, Nucleophiles and electrophiles. Reactive Intermediates: Carbocations, Carbanions and free radicals.

Strength of organic acids and bases: Comparative study with emphasis on factors affecting pK values. Aromaticity: Benzenoids and Hückel's rule.

Stereochemistry

Conformations with respect to ethane, butane and cyclohexane. Interconversion of Wedge Formula, Newmann, Sawhorse and Fischer representations. Concept of chirality (upto two carbon atoms).

Configuration:Geometrical and Optical isomerism; Enantiomerism, Diastereomerism and Meso compounds. Threo and erythro; D and L; cis-trans nomenclature; CIP Rules: R/S (for upto 2 chiral carbon atoms) and E/Z Nomenclature (for upto two C-C systems).

Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

Functional group approach for the following reactions (preparations & reactions) to be studied in context to their structure.

Alkanes: (Upto 5 Carbons). Preparation: Catalytic hydrogenation, Wurtz reaction, Kolbe's synthesis, from Grignard reagent. Reactions: Free radical Substitution: Halogenation.

Alkenes: (Upto 5 Carbons) Preparation: Elimination reactions: Dehydration of alkenes and dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides (Saytzeff's rule); cis alkenes (Partial catalytic hydrogenation) and trans alkenes (Birch reduction). Reactions: cis-addition (alk. KMnO4) and trans-addition (bromine), Addition of HX (Markownikoff's and anti-Markownikoff's addition), Hydration, Ozonolysis, oxymecuration-demercuration, Hydroboration-oxidation.

Alkynes: (Upto 5 Carbons) Preparation: Acetylene from CaC2 and conversion into higher alkynes; by dehalogenation of tetra halides and dehydrohalogenation of vicinal-dihalides.

Reactions: formation of metal acetylides, addition of bromine and alkaline KMnO4, ozonolysis and oxidation with hot alk. KMnO4.