NEB Grade 12 Chemistry Syllabus

NEB Grade 12 Chemistry Syllabus

NEB Grade 12 Chemistry Syllabus

Subject code: 202
Total working hours: 160 hours.
Theory: 128 teaching hours.
Practical: 32 teaching hours.
Final exam marks: 100 marks- (75 Marks theoretical exam and 25 Marks practical exam + viva, records, project works and internal exams).

Physical Chemistry: 40 teaching hours

Unit-1 Volumetric Analysis : 8 teaching hrs
Introduction to gravimetric analysis, Volumetric analysis and equivalent weight, Relationship between equivalent weight, atomic weight and valency, Equivalent weight of compounds (acid, base, salt, oxidizing and reducing agents), Concentration of solution and its units in terms of : Percentage, g/L , molarity, molality, normality and formality, ppm and ppb, Primary and secondary standard substances, Law of equivalence and normality equation, Titration and its types: Acid-base titration, redox titration (related numerical problems).

Unit-2 Ionic Equilibrium : 10 teaching hrs
Introduction to Acids and Bases, Limitation of Arrhenius concepts of acids and bases, Bronsted–Lowry definition of acids and bases, Relative strength of acids and bases, Conjugate acid –base pairs, Lewis definition of acids and bases, Ionization of weak electrolyte (Ostwald’s dilution law), Ionic product of water(Kw), Dissociation constant of acid and base, (Ka& Kb), Concept of pKa and pKb, pH value: pH of strong and weak acids, pH of strong and weak bases, Solubility and solubility product principle, Common Ion effect, Application of solubility product principle and common ion effect in precipitation reactions, Buffer solution and its application, Indicators and selection of indicators in acid base titration, Types of salts: Acidic salts, basic salts, simple salts, complex salts (introduction and examples), Hydrolysis of salts: Salts of strong acid and strong base , Salts of weak acid and strong base , Salts of weak base and strong acid (solving related numerical problems).
Unit-3 Chemical Kinetics : 7 hrs
Introduction, Rate of reactions: Average and instantaneous rate of reactions, Rate law and its expressions, Rate constant and its unit and significance, Order and molecularity, Integrated rate equation for zero and first order reaction, Half-life of zero and first order reactions, Collision theory, Concept of activation energy and activated complex, Factors affecting rate of reactions: Effect of concentration, temperature (Arrhenius Equation) and effect of catalyst (energy profile diagram), Catalysis and types of catalysis: homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzyme catalysis (solving related numerical problems based on rate, rate constant and order of zero and first order reactions).

Unit-4 Thermodynamics : 8 hrs
Introduction ; Energy in chemical reactions ; Internal energy ; First law of thermodynamics ; Enthalpy and enthalpy changes: Endothermic and exothermic processes) ; Enthalpy of reaction, enthalpy of solution, enthalpy of formation, enthalpy of combustion ; Laws of thermochemistry (Laplace Law and Hess’s law) ; Entropy and spontaneity ; Second law of thermodynamics ; Gibbs’ free energy and prediction of spontaneity ; Relationship between ΔG and equilibrium constant (Solving related numerical problems).
Unit-5 Electrochemistry : 7 hrs
Electrode potential and standard electrode potential ; Types of electrodes: Standard hydrogen electrode and calomel electrodes ; Electrochemical series and its applications ; Voltaic cell: Zn-Cu cell, Ag- Cu cell ; Cell potential and standard cell potential ; Relationship between cell potential and free energy ; Commercial batteries and fuel cells (hydrogen/oxygen).

Inorganic Chemistry : 20 teaching hours.

Unit-6 Transition Metals : 5 hrs
Introduction ; Characteristics of transition metals ; Oxidation states of transition metals ; Complex ions and metal complexes ; Shapes of complex ions ; d-orbitals in complex ions (simple explanation by crystal field theory) for octahedral complex ; Reasons for the colour of transition metal compounds ; Catalytic properties of transition metals.

Unit-7 Studies of Heavy Metals : 15 hrs

7.1 Copper : Occurrence and extraction of copper from copper pyrite ; Properties (with air, acids, aqueous ammonia and metal ions) and uses of copper ; Chemistry (preparation, properties and uses) of blue vitriol ; Other compounds of copper (red oxide and black oxide of copper) formula and uses only.

7.2 Zinc : Occurrence and extraction of zinc from zinc blende ; Properties (with air, acid, alkali, displacement reaction) and uses of zinc ; Chemistry (preparation, properties and uses) of white vitriol.

7.3 Mercury : Occurrence and extraction of mercury from cinnabar ; Properties of mercury ; Chemistry (preparation, properties and uses) of calomel and corrosive sublimate.
7.4 Iron : Occurrence and extraction of iron ; Properties and uses of iron ; Manufacture of steel by Basic Oxygen Method and Open Hearth Process ; Corrosion of iron and its prevention.

7.5 Silver : Occurrence and extraction of silver by cyanide process ; Preparation and uses of silver chloride and silver nitrate.

Organic Chemistry : 55 teaching hours

Unit-8 Haloalkanes : 8 hrs
Introduction ; Nomenclature, isomerism and classification of monohaloalkanes ; Preparation of monohaloalkanes from alkanes, alkenes and alcohols ; Physical properties of monohaloalkanes ; Chemical properties, substitution reactions SN1 and SN2 reactions (basic concept only) ; Formation of alcohol, nitrile, amine, ether, thioether, carbylamines, nitrite and nitro alkane using haloalkanes ; Elimination reaction (dehydrohalogenation- Saytzeff’s rule), Reduction reactions, Wurtz reaction ; Preparation of trichloromethane from ethanol and propanone ; Chemical properties of trichloromethane: oxidation, reduction, action on silver powder, conc. nitric acid, propanone, and aqueous alkali.

Unit-9 Haloarene : 3 hrs
Introduction ; Nomenclature and isomerism of haloarenes ; Preparation of chlorobenzene from benzene and benzene diazonium chloride ; Physical properties ; Chemical properties : Low reactivity of haloarenes as compared to haloalkanes in term of nucleophilic substitution reaction , Reduction of chlorobenzene , Electrophilic substitution reactions, Action with Na (Fittig and Wurtz- Fittig reaction) ; Action with chloral ; Uses of haloarenes.
Unit-10 Alcohol : 7 hrs
Introduction ; Nomenclature; isomerism and classification of monohydric alcohol ; Distinction of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols by Victor Meyer’s Method ; Preparation of monohydric alcohols from Haloalkane, primary amines, and esters ; Industrial preparation alcohol from: oxo process, hydroboration-oxidation of ethene & fermentation of sugar ; Definition of common terms: Absolute alcohol, power alcohol, denatured alcohol (methylated spirit), rectified spirit; alcoholic beverage ; Physical properties monohydric alcohols ; Chemical properties of monohydric alcohols : Reaction with HX, PX3, PCl5, SOCl2 ; Action with reactive metals like Na, K, Li ; Dehydration of alcohols ; Oxidation of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol with mild oxidizing agents like acidified KMnO4 or K2Cr2O7 ; Catalyic dehydrogenation of 1° and 2° alcohol and dehydration of 3° alcohol ; Esterification reaction ; Test of ethanol.

Unit-11 Phenols : 4 hrs
Introduction and nomenclature ; Preparation of phenol from i. chlorobenzene ii. Diazonium salt and iii. benzene sulphonic acid ; Physical properties of phenol ; Chemical properties : Acidic nature of phenol (comparison with alcohol and water) ; Action with NH3, Zn, Na, benzene diazonium chloride and phthalic anhydride ; Acylation reaction, Kolbe’s reaction, Reimer-Tiemann’s reaction ; Electrophilic substitution: nitration, sulphonation, brominaiton and Friedal-Craft’s alkylation ; Test of phenol: (FeCl3 test, aq. Bromine test & Libermann test) ; Uses of phenol.
Unit-12 Ethers : 2 hrs
Introduction ; Nomenclature, classification and isomerism of ethers ; Preparation of aliphatic and aromatic ethers from Williamson’s synthesis ; Physical properties of ether ; Chemical properties of ethoxyethane: action with HI , Conc. HCl, Conc. H2SO4, air and Cl2 , Uses of ethers.

Unit-13 aldehydes and Ketones : 10 hrs
Introduction, nomenclature and isomerism ; Preparation of aldehydes and ketones from: Dehydrogenation and oxidation of alcohol, Ozonolysis of alkenes, Acid chloride, Gem dihaloalkane, Catalytic hydration of alkynes ; Physical properties of aldehydes and ketones ; Chemical properties ; Structure and nature of carbonyl group ; Distinction between aldehyde and ketones by using 2,4-DNP reagent, Tollen’s reagent, Fehling’s solution ; Addition reaction: addition of H2, HCN and NaHSO3 ; Action of aldehyde and ketone with ammonia derivatives; NH2OH, NH2-NH2, phenyl hydrazine, semicarbazide ; Aldol condensation ; Cannizzaro’s reaction ; Clemmensen’s reduction ; Wolf-Kishner reduction ; Action with PCl5 and action with LiAlH4 ; Action of methanal with ammonia and phenol ; Formalin and its uses.
Aromatic aldehydes and Ketones:
Preparation of benzaldehyde from toluene and acetophenone from benzene ; Properties of benzaldehyde ; Perkin condensation ; Benzoin condensation ; Cannizzaro’s reaction ; Electrophilic substitution reaction.

Unit-14 Carboxylic Acid and its Derivaties : 9 hrs
Aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids : Introduction, nomenclature and isomerism ; Preparation of monocarboxylic acids from: aldehydes, nitriles, dicarboxylic acid, sodium alkoxide and trihaloalkanes ; Preparation of benzoic acid from alkyl benzene ; Physical properties of monocarboxylic acids ; Chemical properties: Action with alkalies, metal oxides, metal carbonates, metal bicarbonates, PCl3, LiAlH4 and dehydration of carboxylic acid ; Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction ; Electrophilic substitution reaction of benzoic acid bromination, nitration and sulphonation) ; Effect of constituents on the acidic strength of carboxylic acid ; Abnormal behaviour of methanoic acid.
Derivatives of Carboxylic acids (acid halides, amides, esters and anhydrides):
Preparation of acid derivatives from carboxylic acid ; Comparative physical properties of acid derivatives ; Comparative chemical properties of acid derivatives (hydrolysis, ammonolysis, amines (RNH2), alcoholysis, and reduction only) ; Claisen condensation ; Hofmann bromamide reaction ; Amphoteric nature of amide ; Relative reactivity of acid derivatives.
Unit-15 Nitro Compounds : 3 hrs
Nitroalkanes : Introduction, nomenclature and isomerism ; Preparation from haloalkane and alkane ; Physical properties ; Chemical properties: Reduction ; Nitrobenzene : Preparation from benzene ; Physical properties ; Chemical properties : Reduction in different media ; Electrophilic substitution reactions (nitration, sulphonation & bromination) ; Uses of nitro-compounds.

Unit-16 Amines : 7 hrs
Aliphatic amines : Introduction, nomenclature, classification and isomerism ; Separation of primary, secondary and tertiary amines by Hoffmann’s method ; Preparation of primary amines from haloalkane, nitriles, nitroalkanes and amides ; Physical properties ; Chemical properties: basicity of amines, comparative study of basic nature of 1°, 2° and 3° amines ; Reaction of primary amines with chloroform, conc. HCl, R-X, RCOX and nitrous acid (NaNO2 / HCl) ; Test of 1°, 2° and 3° amines (nitrous acid test).

Aromatic amine (Aniline):
Preparation of aniline from nitrobenzene, phenol ; Physical properties ; Chemical properties: basicity of aniline, comparison of basic nature of aniline with aliphatic amines and ammonia, alkylation, acylation, diazotization, carbylamine and coupling reaction, electrophilic substitution: Nitration sulphonation and bromination ; Uses of aniline.
Unit-17 Organometallic Compounds: 2 hrs
Introduction, general formula and examples of organolithium, organocopper and organocadmium compounds ; Nature of Metal-Carbon bond ; Grignard reagent : Preparation (using haloalkane and haloarene) ; Reaction of Grignard reagent with water, aldehydes and ketones ( preparation of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols), carbon dioxide, HCN, RCN, ester and acid chloride

Applied Chemistry: 13 teaching hours.

Unit-18 Chemistry in the Service of Mankind: 4 hrs
Polymers: Addition and condensation polymers ; Elastomers and fibres ; Natural and synthetic polymers ; Some synthetic polymers (polythene, PVC, Teflon, polystyrene, nylon and bakelite ; Dyes : Introduction; Types of dyes on the basis of structure and method of application; Drugs :Characteristics of drugs; Natural and synthetic drugs ; Classification of some common drugs; Habit forming drugs and drug addiction ; Pesticides : Introduction to insecticides, herbicides and fungicides.

Unit-19 Cement : 4 hrs
Introduction ; Raw materials for cement production ; Main steps in cement production (crushing and grinding, strong heating and final grinding) ; Types of cement- OPC and PPC ; Portland cement process with flow-sheet diagram ; Cement Industry in Nepal.

Unit 20. Paper and Pulp : 3 hrs
Introduction ; Raw materials ; Sources of raw materials; Stages in production of paper; Flow-sheet diagram for paper production ; Quality of paper.
Unit-21 Nuclear Chemistry and Applications of Radioactivity : 2 hrs
Natural and artificial radioactivity ; Units of radioactivity; Nuclear reactions ; Nuclear fission and fusion reactions ; Nuclear power and nuclear weapons ; Industrial uses of radioactivity ; Medical uses of radioactivity ; Radiocarbon dating ; Harmful effects of nuclear radiations.