Preparation, Properties and Structure of Hydrogen Peroxide

Preparation, Properties and Structure of Hydrogen Peroxide

Preparation, Properties, Structure and Uses of Hydrogen Peroxide

Preparation of Hydrogen Peroxide

1. Lab Method:
Hydrogen peroxide is prepared in the laboratory by adding Na2O2 to an ice cold dilute H2SO4 solution.
Na2O2 + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + H2O2
2. From Barium Peroxide:
Hydrogen peroxide can be prepared by the action of carbon dioxide on barium peroxide.
BaO 2 + H2O CO2 → BaCO3 + H2O2

Physical properties of Hydrogen peroxide

Followings are some important Physical properties of hydrogen peroxide-
Hydrogen peroxide is colorless and odorless liquid. It is bitter in taste. Pure Hydrogen peroxide is thick syrupy liquid with pale blue colour. It is completely miscible with water, alcohol and ether in all proportion.

Chemical properties of Hydrogen peroxide

Followings are some important Chemical reactions of hydrogen peroxide-
1. Decomposition: Pure Hydrogen peroxide is unstable in nature, hence it decomposes into water and oxygen.
2H2O2(aq) → 2H2O(l) + O2(g)
2. Acidic nature: It turns blue litmus red but it's dilute solution is neutral to litmus. The acidic nature of H2O2 is shown by its neutralization reactions with hydroxides.
NaOH + H2O2 → NaHO2 + H2O
Ba(OH)2 + H2 → BaO2 + 2H2O.
3. Oxidising and reducing nature: It oxidises lead sulphide to lead sulphate (in neutral solution) It oxidizes acidified ferrous sulphate to ferric sulphate (in acidic medium).
H2O2 → H2O + O
2FeSO4 + H2SO 4 + H2O2 → Fe2(SO 4)3 + H2O
4. In the presence of other oxidizing agents, hydrogen peroxide acts as a reducing agent because it can take an atom of oxygen to give water and oxygen gas.
Ag2O + H2O2 → 2Ag + H2O + O2

Uses of hydrogen peroxide

Followings are some important uses of hydrogen peroxide-
Hydrogen peroxide is sold in market under the name Perhydrol.
It acts as a bleaching agent for delicate material.
H2O2 + Cl2 = 2HCl + O2
It is used as Propellants in jet and rocket engines alongwith hydrazine, methanol etc.
It is used in the production of epoxides, inorganic chemicals like sodium perborate.
It is used as an antiseptic for washing wounds.
It is used in the laboratory for detecting the presence of chromium, titanium, etc.

Structure of Hydrogen Peroxide:

Structure of Hydrogen Peroxide

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