Difference Between mRNA, tRNA and rRNA

Difference Between mRNA, tRNA and rRNA

Difference Between mRNA, tRNA and rRNA

RNA also called Ribonucleic Acid, is a single-stranded polymer consisting of nucleotides that are made up of ribose sugar, phosphate, and bases. The bases include adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. It plays a crucial role in gene expression, as it acts as the intermediary between the genetic information that is encoded by DNA and proteins.
In 1965, R.W. Holley described the structure of RNA. The structure of RNA is similar to that of DNA but the key difference is the ribose sugar in the RNA consists of a hydroxyl group which is absent in the DNA. There are three main types of RNA in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. They are-mRNA, tRNA and rRNA.

Difference between mRNA, tRNA and rRNA

mRNA tRNA rRNA
Linear structure Cloverleaf shape Spherical and has a complex structure
In mammals, mRNAs are 300 to 12000 nucleotides long 76 to 90 nucleotides Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells contain different rRNA, e.g. 5s, 16s, 23s and 5s, 5.8s, 18s and 28s, respectively in different ribosomal subunits
Site of synthesis is the nucleus Produced in the cytoplasm Found in ribosomes
They provide a template or carry genetic information contained in DNA for protein synthesis They carry specific amino acids to ribosomes for protein synthesis They facilitate the association of ribosomes
mRNA carries codons for the translation process They carry anticodons, specific to particular amino acid Codons or anticodons are absent

Similarities Between mRNA, tRNA and rRNA

Each mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA are encoded by the genes in the nucleus.
The mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA are composed of adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil.
Both mRNA and rRNA are single-stranded molecules.
Both rRNA and tRNA do not work with DNA.

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