B.Sc. 2nd Part Chemistry Honours Syllabus BRABU MUzaffarpur

B.Sc. 2nd Part Chemistry Honours Syllabus BRABU MUzaffarpur

Second Part Honours, BRABU Muzaffarpur

Third Paper

Nine questions to be set. Five questions to be answered. Short answer type questions are recommended. There may be several parts in a question and different units may be mixed in questions. While setting questions the entire syllabus may be covered as far as practicable. Two questions to be answered from group 'A' and three questions to be answered from group 'B'


Group-A

Chemical Kinetic and Catalysis
Rate law for a general reaction, Mathematical derivation of 1st, 2nd and 3rd order reaction and their life period. Methods of determining order of reactions, Arrhenius equation. Energy of activation, Potential energy diagram and concept of activated complex, rate data and mechanism of reactions. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous catalysis. Effect of catalyst on reaction rate, specificity of catalysed reaction.
Distribution of velocities of Gases
Maxwell distribution law of velocities and energies of gaseous molecules. Effect of mass and temperature on molecular velocities. Treatment of velocities, Collision number, Collision frequency, mean free path, viscosity of gases.
lonic Equilibria
Ostwald's dilution law and its verification, pH of buffer solutions. Hydrolysis of salts. Relation between Kh, Kw, Ka and Kb, pH of hydrolysed salt solutions, degree of hydrolysis, chice of acid-base indicator with pH change, solubility product, lonic product and common ion effect.
Electrochemical Cells
Electrochemical cells, reversible and Irreversible cells, reversible electrodes, Concept of electrode potential, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation for electrode potential, Calomel electrode, Quinhydrone electrode, Applications of emf measurement, determination of pH, ionic product of water, solubility & solubility product of sparingly soluble salt.
Group-B

Nature of Chemical Bond
Types of bond: σ, π, τ and & δ bonds, Bonding in B2H6 copper acetate and chromous acetate, Concept of resonance and delocalisation of orbitals e.g. NO2, NO3, SO2, SO3, SO4-2, PO4-3 and CO3-2 ions. Hydrogen bond and related properties.
Chemistry of Elements of First Transition Series
d-block elements and their characteristic properties, Study of elements of first transition series and their binary compounds, complex formation in different oxidation states and their stabilities, Principles behind volumetric estimation of Cu²+, Fe²+ and Cr³+ ions by the use of standard sodium thiosulphate, potassium peramangnet and potassium dichromate solution.
Chemistry of Elements of Second Transition Series
General characteristic of heavy elements, comparative study with their 3d analogues in respect of their ionic radii, stability of oxidation states, magnetic behaviour of compounds complexes forming tendencies and stereochemistry.
Non-aqueous Solvents
Physical properties of solvents, types of solvents and their general characteristics, reactions in non-aqueous solvents such as liquid ammonia and liquid sulphur dioxide.
Coordination Compounds
Werner's coordination theory and its justification from physical data, Isomerism in complexes, Sidwick of effective atomic number, Chelates, Nomenclature of coordination compounds, valence bond theory of metal-ligand bonding with respect to coordination number 4 and 6, Inner and outer orbital complexes, Inner complexes metal ions with organic reagents such as 8- hydroxyquinoline, cupferron and dimethyl glyoxime.

Fourth Paper

Nine questions to be set. Five questions to be answered. Short answer type questions are recommended. There may be several parts in a question and different units may be mixed in questions. While setting questions the entire syllabus may be covered as far as practicable. Two questions to be answered from group 'A' and three questions to be answered from group 'B'


Group-A

Thermodynamics
Spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, necessity of second law of thermodynamics, Caranot cycle and its efficiency, Clausius inequality, entropy, entropy change of an ideal gas, entropy of mixing, Helmholtz energy and Gibb's energy, their variation with pressure and temperature, Gibbs helmholtz equation, Clausius-Clapeyron equation and its application in colligative properties.
Solutions
Types of solutions, solutions of gases in liquids, Henry's law, solutions of liquids in liquid, Raoult's law, vapour pressure of ideal solution, free energy, volume and enthalpy change for an idea solution, entropy of mixing for an ideal and non-deal solution, Duhem Margules equation, variation of total vapour pressure with variation of composition of the liquid phase, azeotropic mixture, Principle of steam distillation and fractional distillation.
Adsorption
Types of adsorption, Langmuir's adsorption isotherm and Adsorption and catalysis, Effect of temperature and pressure on surface reaction with reference to heterogenous catalysis, classification, preparation and purification of colloidal sols., their optical and electrical properties, hardy-Schulze law, Gel, Synthesis, thixotropy, Association of colloidal electrolytes, soaps, micelles, emulsions.
Distribution Law
Nernst distribution law, its thermodynamic derivation and limitations factors affecting partition coefficient, essential conditions for validity of distribution law, Modification of distribution law for association, dissociation and solvent participation. Applications Complex formation between Kl and l2, CuSO4, and NH3, solvent extraction process.
Group-B

Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds
Optical Isomerism: Elements of symmetry, molecular chirality, stereogenic centre, optical activity, Enantiomers & their properties, Chiral and achiral molecules with stereogenic centres. Diastereomers and meso compounds. Resolutions of recemic mixture. Relative and absolute configurations. Representation of configurations by Fischer and Flying Wedge formulae. Threo and erythro nomenclature of diastereomers having two chiral centres. Sequence rules, D, L. and R, S systems of nomenclatural.
Geometrical Isomerism : Restricted rotation about double bond, Geometrical isomerism about C = Cand C= N, Specification of configuration by cistrans and E-Z system.Basic Idea about geometrical Isomerissm in alicyclic compounds.
Conformational Isomerism: Conformational analysis of ethane, propane and n-butane, Representation of conformations by Newmann and Sawholse projection formulae. Difference between configuration and conformation, conformations of cyclohexane and its monosubstituted derivatives.
Active Methylene Compounds
Acidity of α-hydrogens. Preparation of ethyl acetoacetate and diethyl malonate and their applications to organic synthesis, Keto enol tautomerism of ethyl acetoacetate and β-dicarboxyl compounds.
Hydroxy Acids
General method of preparation and properties of α,β and y-hydroxy acids with special reference to lactic, tartaric & citric acids... Structure of tartaric and citric acids.
Carbohydrates
Classification and nomenclature. Glucoset: open-chain structure. Mechanism of osazone formation. Conversion of glucose into fructose and vice-versa. Chain lengthening and chain shortening of aldoses.
Configurations of D & L- Glucose. Determination of ring size of Glucose & Fructose, Cyclic structures of D glucose: α- & β- D-glucose granoses & furanases. Mutarotation, Metarotation of Glucose.
Aromatic Chemistry: Aromaticity
The Huckel rule. Aromatic, nonaromatic and antiaroma structure of benzene, resonance and resonance energy of benzene. Electrophilic aromatic substitution general pattern of the mechanism, role of α and π - complexes, Mechanism of nitration, halogenation, sulphonation and Friedel-Craft reactions. Directing influence of substituents in aromatic substitution and their activating and deactivating effects, ortho-para ratio in substitution reaction. General methods of preparation and reactions of arenenes and monofunctional benzene derivative like amines, phenoles, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic and sulphonic acid. Synthesis of organic compounds via diazonium salts.
Name reactions and their mechanism
Cannizzaro Reaction, Aldol condensation, Reimer Tiemann Reaction, Sanmayer Reaction, Perkin Reaction, Reformatsky Reaction, Wurtz-Fitting Reaction, Wolff-Kishnar Reduction, Knoevenogal Reaction, Williamson Ether Synthesis.