Biomolecules Terminal Questions with Answer NIOS

Biomolecules Terminal Questions with Answer NIOS National Institute of Open Schooling | NIOS

Biomolecules Terminal Questions with Answer NIOS

National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)
Sr. Secondary, Module-7
Lession-29: Biomolecules Terminal Questions with Answer NIOS


1. How is excess glucose stored in our body?

Our body stores excess glucose as glycogen (a polymer of glucose), which becomes liberated in times of fasting.

2. What is a disaccharide? Give an example.

Disaccharides are the carbohydrates in which two same or different molecules of monosaccharides are combined with the loss of a molecule of water. The monosaccharides are linked to each other by glycosidic linkage. Example- Surose, Lactose, Maltose etc.

3. What are the products formed by the hydrolysis of lactose?

Lactose is composed of β-D galactose and β-D glucose. Thus, on hydrolysis, it gives β-D galactose and β-D glucose.

4. What are essential amino acids?

Essential amino acids are the amino acids which cannot be synthesized by the body and we need to take them in through our diets. Out of the twenty amino acids that are needed by our body to grow and function properly, nine are essential amino acids, they are- Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan and Valine.

5. Differentiate between globular and fibrous proteins with suitable examples.

Globular proteinsFibrous proteins
Globular proteins are highly branched or coiled structures Fibrous proteins are elongated strand-like structures and are usually present in the form of rods or wires.
Globular proteins are made up of not only primary, secondary but also tertiary and occasionally quaternary structures. Fibrous proteins have primary and secondary structures.
Globular proteins have multiple functions as they are used to form enzymes, cellular messengers, amino acids Fibrous proteins act only as structural proteins.
Typically soluble in waterTypically insoluble in water
Haemoglobin, myoglobin, insulin, enzymes are an example of globular proteinkeratin, collagen and elastin are the examples of fibrous protein.

6. What are triglycerides? Mention one of its important uses.

Triglycerides are a type of fat, called lipid , that circulate in your blood. They are the most common type of fat in your body. Triglycerides come from foods, especially butter, oils, and other fats you eat. Once digested, triglycerides circulate in the bloodstream to be used as energy by the cells.

7. What is a nucleotide?

A nucleotide is an organic molecule with a basic composition of a nitrogenous base, pentose sugar and phosphate. Nucleotides are essential for carrying out metabolic and physiological activities.

structure of nucleotide

8. Differentiate between the nucleotides of RNA and DNA.

Sugar present in DNA is 2-deoxy D (-) ribose. Sugar present in RNA is D (--) - ribose.
Cytosine and Thymine as Pyrimidine bases and Guanine and Adenine as Purine bases. Cytosins and Uracil as Pyrimidine bases and Guanine and Adenine as Purine bases.
Double stranded α-helix structure. Single standed α-helix structure.
Mainly occurs in the nucleus of the cell.Mainly occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell.
DNA molecules are very large; their molecular weights may vary from 6 million to 16 million.RNA molecules are much smaller with molecular weights ranging from 20,000 to 40,000.
DNA has unique property of replication.RNA usually does not replicate.
DNA controls the transmission of hereditary effects.RNA controls the synthesis of proteins.

9. What are different types of RNA found in the cell? Mention their functions.

There are three main types of RNA are involved in protein synthesis. They are messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA).
1. mRNA (messenger RNA): it provides the template for protein synthesis during translation.
2. tRNA (transfer RNA): it brings amino acids and reads the genetic code during translation.
3. rRNA (ribosomal RNA): it plays a structural and catalytic role during translation.

10. What are enzymes?

Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts in living organisms, regulating the rate at which chemical reactions proceed without itself being altered in the process. Enzymes work best within specific temperature and pH ranges. Enzymes are specific in nature. One enzyme reacts with only one particular substrate but some enzymes can react with one or a couple of substrates.

11. What is insulin? Why is it important for us?

Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone synthesized by the Pancreas which help in the regulation of blood glucose levels.
Insulin plays a very crucial role in various functioning of our body.
They maintain the level of glycogen and lipid synthesis inside the body. They also play a crucial role during the esterification process of fatty acids. Insulin regulates how the body uses and stores glucose and fat present in the body. Insulin maintains blood glucose levels by instructing the liver and muscle and fat cells to take in glucose from the blood. An increase or decrease in the concentration of insulin leads to the secretion of hydrochloric acid by parietal cells in the stomach.

12. List the deficiency symptoms caused by deficiency of vitamin B12 and vitamin D.

Deficiency caused by vitamin B12 is Anemia, Neurodegenaration, Megalobastic and Rickets, Osteomalacia are caused by the deficiency of Vitamin D.

NIOS Sr. Secondary Chemistry Intext Questions of All Chapters with Answer